Geological history of the Murgia territory

The geomorphologic history of the Alta Murgia began 130 million years ago, when the land that was under the clear and calm sea, started to come out pushed by the pressure of the plate tectonics. The process, still in action, made the land emerging, following the line of the Apennines, to which the Gargano, the Murgia, and the Salento are the direct extensions. (this is visible looking down on the morphology of the Apulia). These three parts, respectively of different height, are divided by two large plain lands: the “Tavoliere delle Puglie” (which extends in the whole province of Foggia) and the “Piana Brindisina”.
The Alta Murgia is the highest portion of the territory. At the north-west are located the sites of Monte Caccia (679 m) and Torre Disperata (672 m), while in correspondence of the cliff, just over the Bradanica deep, some parts reach 100 m of height. The slopes descending south towards the Adriatic sea and the city of Santeramo are more gentle.
This plateau has a rectangular shape and it is composed of limestone; it is characterized by a great number of karstic phenomena which are the result of the rainwater digging process on the carbonate rocks. Some examples are sinkholes, graves, caves.
All the stones on the territory show the sign of the long and effective erosion process of the rainwater. And riding on this land is possible to see many of these extraordinary “handcraft” of nature. The grooves that are visible on each rock follow the inclination of the land, creating sometimes real natural sculptures. Also, the grooves left by the surface water are still visible and represent one of the biggest karstic phenomena.